Management Measures Tool for Marine Energy

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Accessing Management Measures that Support Deployment of Wave and Tidal Energy Devices

As the marine renewable energy (MRE) industry moves beyond deployment of individual wave and tidal energy devices towards arrays, certain risks of MRE devices on the marine environment are not well understood and have led to onerous monitoring requirements placed on device developers.

A workshop was held in May 2017 with researchers, regulators, and developers to create the basis for the tool shown below. In consultation with the research and regulatory communities, it was agreed that applying a set of robust management measures could act as safeguards for marine animals and habitats until available monitoring data allows for determining the level of risk from MRE devices. At that point, measures could be dialed back or removed, if warranted. More information on the workshop and input for the tool can be found here.

The Management Measures Tool for Marine Energy shows management (or mitigation) measures from past or current MRE projects as a reference to help manage potential risks from future projects and allow them to move forward in the face of uncertainty, or until a risk can be retired. Additional management measures are regularly added by the OES-Environmental team. In addition to the searchable tool below, the information can be downloaded here. The download file includes additional details not shown below, including comments from stakeholders on past experience, cost of management measures, and when a management measure is needed.

View the instructions document for more in-depth details and examples on how to use the Management Measure Tool for Marine Energy or check out this webinar for an overview and demonstration of the tool. 

Last updated January 2023

Displaying 1 - 100 of 339 management measures
Technology Project Phase Stressor Receptor Management Measure Advantages Challenges Project Documents
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates
Monitoring

Pre and post installation monitoring of sensitive benthic communities, based on diver, drop down, static visual surveys (camera), or grab sampling.

Reduce scientific uncertainty.

Interpretation of data for statistical purposes may not have power to detect change generated by impact.

May require correlation with detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics studies and physical flow measurements.

SAE Renewables 2011, Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Foubister 2005, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2010, Davison and Mallows 2005, Laminaria 2018, Royal Haskoning 2012, The Marine Institute 2016, Royal Haskoning 2019, Orbital Marine Power 2018, Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC, Ramsey Sound, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, EMEC Shapinsay Sound Scale Tidal Test Site, Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, North West Lewis Wave Array, Galway Bay Test Site, Morlais Tidal Demonstration Zone, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC, Oyster 800 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Habitat Loss

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates, demersal fish
Design feature

Micrositing of offshore infrastructure to avoid sensitive habitats and minimise footprint.

Could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats.

Low cost measure at single device or small-scale array.

Foubister 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, RSK Group 2012, South West of England Regional Development Agency (SWDRA) 2006, Magallanes Renovables 2020, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Laminaria 2018, The Marine Institute 2016, THETIS Energy 2009, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, West Orkney South Wave Energy Site, Wave Hub, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Galway Bay Test Site, Torr Head Project
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Birds
Diving birds
Mitigation

Implement a 'soft start' approach during cut-in.

Could reduce risk by allowing animals time to move away from the turbine.

Low cost option, adopted for other activities (e.g., piling)

Unclear if this offers additional mitigation as many devices power up gradually anyway.

Orbital Marine Power 2010, MeyGen 2012, South West of England Regional Development Agency (SWDRA) 2006, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, Orbital Marine Power SR250 at EMEC, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project , Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Birds
Monitoring

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Fish
Design feature

Physical Ccontainment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination/pollution escaping from structure.

Foubister 2005, MeyGen 2012, DP Energy Ltd. 2013, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Magallanes Renovables 2020, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, THETIS Energy 2009, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project , West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Galway Bay Test Site, Torr Head Project
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Fish
Elasmobranch, large fish
Design feature

Minimise the number of mooring lines.

Reduce risk of entanglement.

Could be a costly measure for technology developers.

Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Habitat
Design feature

Design structures to minimise effect on turbulence structure.

Minimizes change in turbulence structure and hence potential interaction.

Can present financial, logistical, or design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device/moorings.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Ramsey Sound
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Habitat
Mitigation

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Orbital Marine Power 2018, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC, Mocean Wave Energy Converter: Blue Horizon
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination/pollution from materials

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Underwater noise

The potential effects from underwater noise generated during installation/ construction (excluding piling).

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Limit vessel speed.

Reduces potential effects.

Relatively low-cost measure.

SAE Renewables 2011, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in lost fishing gear or other equipment trapped on infrastructure.

Reptiles
Sea turtles
Mitigation

Fisheries management: Agreement with fishermen not to fish near to the device, warning of the dangers of losing equipment.

Reduces potential for entanglement of fishing gear in mooring lines and thus potential for entanglement of sea turtles.

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Benthic
Design feature

Site selection (taking into account cumulative impact of other developments).

Minimises risk of development causing displacement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Benthic
Monitoring, Compliance

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Orbital Marine Power 2014, Xodus Group 2019, Magallanes Renovables 2020, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Birds
Mitigation

Timing of installation and decommissioning & marine operations to avoid times of particular sensitivity (e.g. breeding).

Minimizes risk of development causing displacement by avoiding works during sensitive times.

Can be disruptive to installation/decommissioning and hence costly to developer.

OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Aquatera Ltd 2011, Foubister 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, SSE Renewables 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, McGrath 2013, Orbital Marine Power 2014, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Brims Tidal Array, Wello Penguin at EMEC, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Westray South Tidal Project, Fair Head Tidal Array, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

Reduced visibility impacting prey detection and obstruction avoidance.

Fish
Mitigation

Best practice methodologies to reduce resuspension of sediment during cable burial or device foundation/mooring installation.

Foubister 2005, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Fish
Demersal fish
Design feature

Lay cables in natural crevices.

MeyGen 2012, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Fish
Mitigation

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Lack of industry specific guidance.

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Habitat
Mitigation

Timing of installation and decommissioning & marine operations to avoid times of particular sensitivity (e.g. breeding).

Minimizes risk of development causing displacement by avoiding works during sensitive times

Can be disruptive and hence costly to developer

OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Aquatera Ltd 2011, Foubister 2005, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, SSE Renewables 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, McGrath 2013, Orbital Marine Power 2014, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, Brims Tidal Array, Wello Penguin at EMEC, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Westray South Tidal Project, Fair Head Tidal Array, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Marine Mammals
Design feature

Design structures to minimise effect on turbulence structure.

Minimizes change in turbulence structure and hence potential interaction.

Can present financial, logistical, or design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device/moorings.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Ramsey Sound
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Marine Mammals
Cetaceans
Design feature

Maintain taut mooring lines.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement.

Regular inspections can provide operational insight into condition.

Inspections help track interactions/events with marine animals.

Mooring design driven by technical and commercial consideration.

Regular ROV/dive or drop-down camera inspections required.

Aquatera Ltd 2011, Laminaria 2018, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Wello Penguin at EMEC, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Reptiles
Design feature

Site selection to avoid sensitive routes/areas.

Minimizes risk of development acting as a barrier to movement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates
Design feature

Bury or HDD cables where possible and viable.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Reduces 'snagging risk' for vessels.

May have an impact on surrounding benthic habitats and sensitive species.

Uncertainty around the need for and efficacy of this measure.

Can be very challenging or impossible at sites where seabed tends to be rocky.

Additional cost to the project.

...Read more

May have an impact on surrounding benthic habitats and sensitive species.

Uncertainty around the need for and efficacy of this measure.

Can be very challenging or impossible at sites where seabed tends to be rocky.

Additional cost to the project.

Reduced possibility of decommissioning.

Read less
Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), PacWave South Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Birds
Monitoring

Installation of ADCPs and turbulence sensors to better understand the baseline tidal flow conditions and hence the change in tidal flow due to presence of the device(s).

Reduce scientific uncertainty

Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Aquatera 2017, Ramsey Sound, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Habitat Creation

The introduction of infrastructure and artificial substrates will provide habitat and artificial refuges.

Birds
Monitoring

Monitor near-field behaviors.

Reduces scientific uncertainty around collision risk, displacement, and other impacts.

Increased value/fecundity of commercially important species.

Informs understanding of potential positive impacts from colonization and use of the project infrastructure.

This type of monitoring can be expensive and difficult to deliver in practice.

May require additional licensing (e.g., echosounders).

MeyGen 2012, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project , Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL)
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Fish
Design feature

Site selection.

Minimizes significance of interaction.

ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Fish
Migratory fish
Design feature

Micrositing of offshore infrastructure to avoid sensitive habitats and minimise footprint.

Could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats.

Relatively low cost measure.

DP Energy Ltd. 2013, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Laminaria 2018, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, The Marine Institute 2016, West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), Galway Bay Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Habitat
Design feature

Site selection to avoid sensitive routes/areas.

Minimizes risk of development acting as a barrier to movement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

ScottishPower Renewables 2012, OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array, Brims Tidal Array
Wave Installation, Operation & Maintenance Habitat Loss

Direct loss of protected or sensitive intertidal communities from changes in hydrodynamics due to nearshore WECs.

Habitat
Intertidal ecology
Design feature

Micrositing of nearshore WECs to minimise the impact on sensitive habitats and species.

Foubister 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, South West of England Regional Development Agency (SWDRA) 2006, SSE Renewables 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, MeyGen 2012, Laminaria 2018, The Marine Institute 2016, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Wave Hub, Westray South Tidal Project, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project , EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Galway Bay Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Marine Mammals
Monitoring

Environmental monitoring to detect collision events.

Understand avoidance behavior, nature of interactions, and outcome of collision events.

Can be a high cost associated with this.

Unclear how much monitoring will be required to fully understand this risk.

Technology is not advanced enough yet to do this efficiently.

Data mortgage (data gathered more quickly than it can be analysed).

...Read more

Can be a high cost associated with this.

Unclear how much monitoring will be required to fully understand this risk.

Technology is not advanced enough yet to do this efficiently.

Data mortgage (data gathered more quickly than it can be analysed).

Power supply availability - hard-wired vs. battery; power is required for monitoring and power availability can present logistical, financial, and technical challenges.

Interaction between equipment - e.g., multibeam sonar/ ADCP/echosounder; there can be interaction between monitoring equipment which can present challenges in monitoring.

Certain equipment used such as PAM may actually effect behaviour themselves.

Read less
SAE Renewables 2011, Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, GlaxoSmithKlineMontrose 2012, Orbital Marine Power 2014, ScottishPower Renewables 2010, Davison and Mallows 2005, McGrath 2013, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, Orbital Marine Power 2018, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC, Oyster 800 at EMEC, GSK Montrose Tidal Array, Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Fair Head Tidal Array, Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Habitat Creation

The introduction of infrastructure and artificial substrates will provide habitat and artificial refuges.

Marine Mammals
Monitoring

Monitor near-field behaviours.

Informs understanding of potential positive impacts from colonization and use of the project infrastructure.

Reduces scientific uncertainty around collision risk, displacement, and other impacts.

Increased value/fecundity of commercially important species.

Can be expensive and difficult to deliver in practice.

May require additional licensing (e.g., echosounders).

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Reptiles
Mitigation

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc., - selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination/pollution from materials which may have escaped structure.

Use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g., fluid changes.)

Foubister 2005, MeyGen 2012, Xodus AURORA 2010, The Marine Institute 2016, THETIS Energy 2009, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project , HS1000 at EMEC, Galway Bay Test Site, Torr Head Project
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Benthic
Monitoring

Installation of ADCPs and turbulence sensors to better understand the baseline tidal flow conditions and hence the change in tidal flow due to presence of the device(s).

Reduce scientific uncertainty.

Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Aquatera 2017, Ramsey Sound, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Habitat Loss

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates, demersal fish
Design feature

Minimize footprint of anchors / foundations.

Could reduce effects on sensitive habitats.

May impact technical considerations, such as size of anchors/foundations that are safe and optimal for operation of device(s).

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Aquatera Ltd 2011, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, RSK Group 2012, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Wello Penguin at EMEC, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, West Orkney South Wave Energy Site, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Pontential risk of collision with device giving size and character of structure

Fish
Design feature

Device components (e.g., transformer and power conditioning equipment) are designed internally.

Reduces potential for collision with external moving parts.

Aquatera Ltd 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, Wello Penguin at EMEC, Galway Bay Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Underwater noise

The potential effects from underwater noise generated during installation/ construction (excluding piling).

Birds
Seabirds
Mitigation

Avoid/limit 'noisy works' within close proximity to sensitive sites (e.g., known seal haul outs during sensitive periods) defining appropriate clearance distances where necessary.

Could reduce potential effects on sensitive species during sensitive periods.

Could increase project construction timescales and thus costs (e.g., if continuous drilling time is restricted or specific periods need to be avoided).

Aquatera Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, McGrath 2013, Orbital Marine Power 2014, Aquatera 2017, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, Orbital Marine Power 2018, Wello Penguin at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Fair Head Tidal Array, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Fish
Mitigation

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. - selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination/pollution from materials which may have escaped structure.

Use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g., fluid changes.)

Foubister 2005, Foubister 2005, MeyGen 2012, Xodus AURORA 2010, DP Energy Ltd. 2013, The Marine Institute 2016, THETIS Energy 2009, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project , HS1000 at EMEC, West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park, Galway Bay Test Site, Torr Head Project
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Fish
Elasmobranch, large fish
Mitigation

Install a 'detect and shut-down' system using active sonar and other appropriate monitoring equipment.

Could reduce/remove risk of collision with moving blades and enable a route through the consenting process, particulalrly at high sensitivity locations.

Could affect power production, is expensive to implement, and does not help to reduce scientific uncertainty regarding the risk....Read more

Could affect power production, is expensive to implement, and does not help to reduce scientific uncertainty regarding the risk. The reductions in power production, although small, would bring about uncertainty in the investment process and there are questions around impacts of sonar on sensitive species.

Read less
Xodus Group 2019, Davison and Mallows 2005, Magallanes Renovables 2020, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL)
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Habitat
Monitoring

Modelling to predict the interaction between changes in tidal flow, flux and turbulence structure and animals.

Reduces scientific uncertainty so appropriate management measures can be employed

Limited management measures available to minimise interaction despite modelling to fully predict interaction

GlaxoSmithKlineMontrose 2012, Orbital Marine Power 2014, Craig 2008, GSK Montrose Tidal Array, OpenHydro Alderney
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Habitat
Mitigation, Design feature

Antifouling application on components such as the pile and rodos blades.

Prevents colonization of the device and structure, avoiding forming a stepping stone for non-native species.

Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Orbital Marine Power 2018, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation, Compliance

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organization (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination/pollution event and ensures that contingency plans are in place.

Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Low 2012, Foubister 2005, GlaxoSmithKlineMontrose 2012, MeyGen 2012, Davison and Mallows 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, GSK Montrose Tidal Array, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project , Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Underwater noise

The potential effects from airborne noise from support vessel activity.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Adherence to Scotish Marine Wildlife Watching Code (SMWWC).

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, Xodus Group 2019, Magallanes Renovables 2020, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2020, Aquatera 2017, Laminaria 2018, Orbital Marine Power 2018, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, EMEC Scapa Flow Scale Wave Test Site, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC, Mocean Wave Energy Converter: Blue Horizon
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Reptiles
Sea turtles
Design feature

Minimise the number of mooring lines.

Reduce risk of entanglement.

Could be a costly measure for technology developers.

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Benthic
Mitigation

Timing of installation and decommissioning & marine operations to avoid times of particular sensitivity (e.g., breeding).

Minimises risk of development causing displacement by avoiding works during sensitive times.

Can be disruptive and hence costly to developer.

OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Aquatera Ltd 2011, Foubister 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, SSE Renewables 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, McGrath 2013, Orbital Marine Power 2014, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Brims Tidal Array, Wello Penguin at EMEC, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Westray South Tidal Project, Fair Head Tidal Array, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Benthic
Mitigation, Design feature

Antifouling application on components such as the pile and rotor blades.

Prevents colonization of the device and structure, avoiding forming a stepping stone for non-native species.

Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Magallanes Renovables 2020, McGrath 2013, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, Fair Head Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Birds
Design feature

Array/mooring configuration designed to avoid migratory routes or other important sites

Minimizes risk of development creating displacement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

May be inconsistent with optimal layout of the development for exploitation of the energy source.

Can be a costly measure when scaling up to larger arrays.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

Sediment disturbance disrupting water clarity that results in smothering of fish spawning grounds.

Fish
Mitigation

Best practice methodologies to reduce resuspension of sediment during cable burial or device foundation / mooring installation.

Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Fish
Demersal fish
Design feature

Maximise length of any drilled boreholes.

MeyGen 2012, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Fish
Mitigation, Compliance

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Habitat
Design feature

Array/ mooring configuration designed to avoid migratory routes or other important sites.

Minimizes risk of development creating displacement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites

May be inconsistent with optimal layout of the development for exploitation of the energy source.

Can be a costly measure when scaling up to larger arrays.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

Modifications to prey distribution and abundance (to include for other receptors) resulting in changes to foraging behaviour.

Marine Mammals
Design feature

Design structures to minimise effect on turbulence structure.

Minimizeschange in turbulence structure and hence potential interaction.

Can present financial, logistical, or design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device/moorings.

Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Ramsey Sound, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Marine Mammals
Cetaceans
Design feature

Cable design with maximum bend radius.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement.

Mooring design driven by technical and commercial consideration.

Foubister 2005, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Reptiles
Design feature

Array/mooring configuration designed to avoid migratory routes or other important sites.

Minimizes risk of development acting as a barrier to movement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

May be inconsistent with optimal layout of the development for exploitation of the energy source.

Can be a costly measure when scaling up to larger arrays.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Wave, Tidal Installation Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Benthic
Design feature

Site selection to avoid sensitive routes/areas.

Minimises risk of development acting as a barrier to movement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

Argyll Tidal Limited 2013, OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Argyll Tidal Demonstrator Project, Brims Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates
Design feature

Lay cables in natural crevices.

MeyGen 2012, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Birds
Design feature

Design structures to minimise effect on turbulence structure.

Minimises change in turbulence structure and hence potential interaction.

Can present financial, logistical, or design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device/moorings.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Ramsey Sound
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Habitat Creation

The introduction of infrastructure and artificial substrates will provide potential roosting habitat.

Birds
Roosting birds
Monitoring

Monitor use of device as a roosting platform.

Reduces scientific uncertainty around collision risk, displacement, and other impacts.

Data mortgage (concept of generating data more quickly than it can be analysed).

Could be expensive to monitor.

DP Energy Ltd. 2013, Orbital Marine Power 2018, West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

Modifications to prey distribution and abundance (to include for other receptors) resulting in changes to foraging behavior.

Fish
Design feature

Site selection.

Minimizes significance of interaction.

ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Fish
Demersal fish
Design feature

Install cable protection/armour.

Higher levels of insulation reduces the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

DP Energy Ltd. 2013, Foubister 2005, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Habitat
Design feature

Array/mooring configuration designed to avoid migratory routes or other important sites

Minimizes risk of development acting as a barrier to movement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

May be inconsistent with optimal layout of the development for exploitation of the energy source.

Can be a costly measure when scaling up to larger arrays.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Wave, Tidal Installation Habitat Loss

Loss of intertidal habitat from trenching for cable landfall.

Habitat
Intertidal ecology
Design feature

Pre-construction cable route surveys to avoid sensitive habitats.

Orbital Marine Power 2014, OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Brims Tidal Array, Pelamis Wave Power P2 Demonstration at EMEC
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Implement a 'soft start'/cut in speed management approach during cut-in at sensitive sites, i.e. those where the potential for collisions is high.

Soft start could reduce risk by allowing animals time to move away from the turbine.

Cut in speed management could be used to reduce risk during periods of known higher activity in sensitive species.

Low cost option, adopted for other activities (e.g., piling).

Unclear if this offers additional mitigation as many devices power up gradually anyway.

Implementation of this measure could result in a loss of revenue for the developer.

Xodus Group 2019, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Lighting

Potential for lighting to adversely affect nocturnal and migratory species.

Marine Mammals
Design feature

Consider type, color, and use of lighting during design and consultation with navigational stakeholders.

May reduce impacts on sensitive species if they are known to use or migrate near to the project site.

Navigational safety and interests need to be considered and make take precedence.

DP Energy Ltd. 2013, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Reptiles
Mitigation

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination/pollution from materials

Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Benthic
Design feature

Design structures to minimise effect on turbulence structure.

Minimises change in turbulence structure and hence potential interaction.

Can present financial/ logistical/ design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device/ moorings

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Ramsey Sound
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Habitat Loss

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates, demersal fish
Design feature

Cable protection management measures to ensure that any rock placement that is required will be kept to a minimum to reduce seabed disturbance.

Could reduce effects on sensitive habitats.

Additional cost.

Foubister 2005, RSK Group 2012, Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, West Orkney South Wave Energy Site, Oyster 800 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation Collision risk

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Birds
Monitoring

Array instalation carried out in phases.

Allows close monitoring to observe any unexpected effects.

GlaxoSmithKlineMontrose 2012, GSK Montrose Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Vessel disturbance

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Birds
Birds on water
Mitigation

Do not break up or 'flush' rafts of birds.

Reduces potential effects.

Relatively low-cost measure.

Effectiveness of mitigation unclear.

Pertinent to note that the measure is selectively applied to project vessels in context of other vessel operations.

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2020, Magallanes Renovables 2020, Aquatera 2017, Orbital Marine Power 2018, EMEC Scapa Flow Scale Wave Test Site, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Fish
Mitigation

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination/pollution from materials

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entrapment

Potential risk of entrapment within device chambers and mooring arrays.

Fish
Mitigation

Regular ROV/drop down camera surveys to establish occurrence of entrapment.

Early detection of entrapment.

Additional cost.

Foubister 2005, Orbital Marine Power 2010, McPherson 2015, Orbital Marine Power 2018, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Orbital Marine Power SR250 at EMEC, Nova Tidal Array, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Habitat
Design feature

Site selection.

Minimizes significance of interaction.

ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Airborne noise

The potential effects from airborne noise generated during installation/construction (excluding piling).

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Avoid/limit 'noisy works' within close proximity to sensitive sites (e.g., known seal haul outs and important cliff nesting sites) during sensitive periods, defining appropriate clearance distances where necessary.

Could reduce potential effects on sensitive species during sensitive periods.

Could increase project construction timescales (e.g., if continuous drilling time is restricted or specific periods need to be avoided).

Foubister 2005, SSE Renewables 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, McGrath 2013, SAE Renewables 2011, Aquatera 2017, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, McGrath 2013, DP Energy Ltd. 2017, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Westray South Tidal Project, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Fair Head Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for oil spill incident resulting from the influence of unfavourable weather conditions.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Vessel activities to occur in suitable weather conditions.

Reduces the chance for oil spill to the environment.

MeyGen 2012, The Marine Institute 2016, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project , Galway Bay Test Site, Pelamis Wave Power P2 Demonstration at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Vessel collision

Potential for collision with project vessels.

Marine Mammals
Cetaceans
Mitigation

Adhere to minimum approach distances for vessels on approach.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Xodus Group 2019, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2020, Aquatera 2017, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Orbital Marine Power 2018, Oyster 800 at EMEC, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, EMEC Scapa Flow Scale Wave Test Site, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, PacWave South Test Site, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entrapment

Potential risk of entrapment within device chambers and mooring arrays.

Reptiles
Mitigation

Release entrapped animal.

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Benthic
Design feature

Array/mooring configuration designed to avoid migratory routes or other important sites.

Minimises risk of development creating displacement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

May be inconsistent with optimal layout of the development for exploitation of the energy source.

Can be a costly measure when scaling up to larger arrays.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Airborne noise

The potential effects from airborne noise generated during installation/construction (excluding piling).

Birds
Seabirds
Mitigation

Avoid/limit 'noisy works' within close proximity to sensitive sites (e.g., known seal haul outs and important cliff nesting sites) during sensitive periods, defining appropriate clearance distances where necessary.

Could reduce potential effects on sensitive species during sensitive periods.

Could increase project construction timescales (e.g., if continuous drilling time is restricted or specific periods need to be avoided) and may increase costs.

OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Aquatera Ltd 2011, Foubister 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, SSE Renewables 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, McGrath 2013, Orbital Marine Power 2014, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, Brims Tidal Array, Wello Penguin at EMEC, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Westray South Tidal Project, Fair Head Tidal Array, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Birds
Diving birds
Design feature

Maintain taut mooring lines.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement.

Regular inspections can provide operational insight into condition, and help track effects/interaction with marine animals.

Mooring design driven by technical and commercial consideration.

Regular ROV/dive or drop-down camera inspections required.

Aquatera Ltd 2011, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Wello Penguin at EMEC, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

Reduced visibility impacting prey detection and obstruction avoidance.

Fish
Design feature

Minimize the amount of structure on the seabed.

Minimizes the changes in sediment dynamics due to presence of structure on the seabed.

Can present financial, logistical, or design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device/moorings.

OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Brims Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Fish
Demersal fish
Design feature

Strategic use of rock placement/other cable protection.

Foubister 2005, Orbital Marine Power 2010, MeyGen 2012, ScottishPower Renewables 2010, DP Energy Ltd. 2013, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Orbital Marine Power SR250 at EMEC, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project , Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array, West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Fish
Mitigation

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

McPherson 2015, Nova Innovation - Shetland Tidal Array, Mocean Wave Energy Converter: Blue Horizon
Wave Operation & Maintenance Dissipation of wave energy

The potential wider or secondary effects (siltation changes or smothering) on protected or sensitive littoral habitat due to devices and associated moorings, support structures or landfall cables.

Habitat
Benthic invertebrates
None identified

Benthic and intertidal surveys focused on indicator species, species assemblage, community structure and ecosystem function.

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2019, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Xodus Group 2012, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, EMEC Shapinsay Sound Scale Tidal Test Site, Galway Bay Test Site, Pelamis Wave Power P2 Demonstration at EMEC
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Marine Mammals
Monitoring

Modelling to predict the interaction between changes in tidal flow, flux and turbulence structure and animals.

Reduces scientific uncertainty so appropriate management measures can be employed

Limited management measures available to minimize interaction despite modelling to fully predict interaction.

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Marine Mammals
Cetaceans
Design feature, Monitoring

Install tension sensors on mooring lines.

Informs of problem with mooring lines allowing rectification.

Additional cost and control system integration requirement.

Load from entangled animal is likely to be smaller than the device loading on the moorings.

Uncertainty of the efficacy of this measure.

Laminaria 2018, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Reptiles
Mitigation

Adherence to vessel management plan.

Minimizes the potential interaction between animals and construction or maintenance vessels.

Wave, Tidal Installation Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Benthic
Design feature

Array/mooring configuration designed to avoid migratory routes or other important sites.

Minimises risk of development acting as a barrier to movement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

May be inconsistent with optimal layout of the development for exploitation of the energy source.

Can be a costly measure when scaling up to larger arrays.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Wave, Tidal Installation EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates
Design feature

Micrositing of offshore infrastructure to avoid sensitive habitats and minimise footprint.

Could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats.

Can often be done with little additional cost

ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Laminaria 2018, The Marine Institute 2016, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Galway Bay Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Birds
Monitoring

Modelling to predict the interaction between changes in tidal flow, flux, and turbulence structure and animals.

Reduces scientific uncertainty so appropriate management measures can be employed.

Limited management measures available to minimise interaction despite modelling to fully predict interaction.

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Lighting

Potential for lighting to adversely affect nocturnal and migratory species.

Birds
Seabirds
Design feature

Consider type, color, and use of lighting during design and consultation with navigational stakeholders.

A targeted lighting plan may have the potential to reduce impacts on sensitive species.

Navigational safety are a consideration and may take priority over implementation of ecological aspects.

Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Fish
Monitoring

Environmental monitoring to detect collision events.

Understand avoidance behaviour, nature of interactions, and outcome of collision events.

Can be a high cost associated with this.

Unclear how much monitoring will be required to fully understand this risk.

Technology is not advanced enough yet to do this efficiently.

Data mortgage (data gathered more quickly than it can be analysed).

...Read more

Can be a high cost associated with this.

Unclear how much monitoring will be required to fully understand this risk.

Technology is not advanced enough yet to do this efficiently.

Data mortgage (data gathered more quickly than it can be analysed).

Power supply availability - hard-wired vs. battery; power is required for monitoring and power availability can present logistical, financial and technical challenges.

Interaction between equipment - e.g., multibeam sonar/ ADCP/echosounder; there can be interaction between monitoring equipment which can present challenges in monitoring.

Certain equipment used such as PAM may actually effect behaviour themselves.

Read less
SAE Renewables 2011, GlaxoSmithKlineMontrose 2012, Orbital Marine Power 2014, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC, GSK Montrose Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Fish
Demersal fish
Design feature

Limit cable voltage.

MeyGen 2012, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Habitat
Mitigation

Adherence to vessel management plan.

Minimizes the potential interaction between animals and construction or maintenance vessels.

OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Aquatera 2017, ScottishPower Renewables 2010, Brims Tidal Array, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Habitat Loss

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Habitat
Benthic invertebrates, demersal fish
Design feature

Micrositing of offshore infrastructure to avoid sensitive habitats and minimise footprint.

Could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats.

Low cost measure at single device or small-scale array.

MeyGen 2012, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, ScottishPower Renewables 2010, Davison and Mallows 2005, SSE Renewables 2011, Laminaria 2018, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project , Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array, Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Westray South Tidal Project, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS)
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Marine Mammals
Monitoring

Environmental monitoring to better understand near-field behaviour and avoidance.

Reduce scientific uncertainty.

Can be a high cost associated with this.

Unclear how much monitoring will be required to fully understand this risk.

Technology is not advanced enough yet to do this efficiently.

Data mortgage (data gathered more quickly than it can be analysed).

...Read more

Can be a high cost associated with this.

Unclear how much monitoring will be required to fully understand this risk.

Technology is not advanced enough yet to do this efficiently.

Data mortgage (data gathered more quickly than it can be analysed).

Power supply availability - hard-wired vs. battery; power is required for monitoring and power availability can present logistical, financial, and technical challenges.

Interaction between equipment - e.g., multibeam sonar/ADCP/echosounder; there can be interaction between monitoring equipment which can present challenges in monitoring.

Certain equipment used such as PAM may actually effect behaviour themselves.

Read less
GlaxoSmithKlineMontrose 2012, Minesto 2016, Davison and Mallows 2005, Xodus Group 2019, McGrath 2013, MeyGen 2012, Orbital Marine Power 2018, GSK Montrose Tidal Array, Minesto Holyhead Deep - Non-grid connected DG500, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Fair Head Tidal Array, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project , Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Lighting

Potential for light from installation vessels to adversely affect nocturnal and migratory species.

Marine Mammals
Monitoring

Monitoring effects on animals.

Reduce scientific uncertainty.

Can be difficult to detect change as a result of interaction as opposed to natural variability.

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Reptiles
Mitigation, Compliance

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan/Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organization (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination/pollution event and ensures that contingency plans are in place.

Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Foubister 2005, MeyGen 2012, Xodus AURORA 2010, Foubister 2005, Davison and Mallows 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project , HS1000 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Benthic
Monitoring

Modelling to predict the interaction between changes in tidal flow, flux and turbulence structure and animals.

Reduces scientific uncertainty so appropriate management measures can be employed.

Limited management measures available to minimise interaction despite modelling to fully predict interaction

Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Habitat Loss

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates, demersal fish
Mitigation

Use of locally sourced materials, for cable protection, of the same type as the habitat to be disturbed by cable installation.

Minimize impact on biodiversity/ecosystem - lost seabed is replaced with same material and minimizes habitat loss.

Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL)
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Birds
Diving birds
Mitigation

Reduce maximum blade tip speed.

Could reduce the likelihood or consequence of potential collision events.

Potential impacts on power production.

Control mechanism of turbine blade speed unclear.

May cause increased fatigue.

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Vessel disturbance

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Birds
Birds on water
Mitigation

Adhere to minimum approach distances for vessels on approach.

Reduces potential effects.

Relatively low-cost measure.

Effectiveness of mitigation is unclear. Further monitoring (e.g., defining of approach distances and then comparing these to see which are most effective) would validate the efficacy of the measure.

Can increase the time of operational procedures and thus increase cost.

Xodus Group 2019, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2020, DP Energy Ltd. 2017, Aquatera 2017, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, EMEC Scapa Flow Scale Wave Test Site, Fair Head Tidal Array, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Fish
Compliance

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan/Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organization (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination/pollution event and ensures that contingency plans are in place.

Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Foubister 2005, GlaxoSmithKlineMontrose 2012, MeyGen 2012, DP Energy Ltd. 2013, Foubister 2005, Davison and Mallows 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, GSK Montrose Tidal Array, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project , West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site